Wednesday, July 25, 2007

LP Suction




Suctioning atau penghisapan merupakan tindakan untuk mempertahankan jalan nafas sehingga memungkinkan terjadinya proses pertukaran gas yang adekuat dengan cara mengeluarkan secret pada klien yang tidak mampu mengeluarkannya sendiri. ( Ignativicius, 1999 ).


Indikasi dilakukannya penghisapan adalah adanya atau banyaknya secret yang menyumbat jalan nafas, ditandai dengan :

· Terdengar adanya suara pada jalan nafas

· Hasil auskultasi : ditemukan suara crackels atau ronkhi

· Kelelahan

· Nadi dan laju pernafasan meningkat

· Ditemukannya mukus pada alat Bantu nafas

· Permintaan dari klien sendiri untuk disuction

· Meningkanya peak airway pressure pada mesin ventilator


Hudak ( 1997 ) menyatakan persiapan alat scara umum untuk tindakan penghisapan adalah sebagai berikut ;

a. Kateter suction steril yang atraumatik

b. Sarung tangan

c. Tempat steril untuk irigasi

d. Spuit berisi cairan NaCl steril untuk irigasi trachea jika diindikasikan

( Ignativicius, 1999 ) menuliskan langkah-langkah dalam melakukan tindakan penghisapan adalah sebagai berikut :

1. Kaji adanya kebutuhan untuk dilakukannya tindakan penghisapan.

( usahakan tidak rutin melakukan penghisapan karena menyebabkan kerusakan mukosa, perdarahan, dan bronkospasme ).

2. Lakukan cuci tangan, gunakan alat pelindung diri dari kemungkinan

terjadinya penularan penyakit melalui secret.

3. Jelaskan kepada pasien mengenai sensasi yang akan dirasakan selama

penghisapan seperti nafas pendek, , batuk, dan rasa tidak nyaman.

4. Check mesin penghisap, siapkan tekanan mesin suction pada level

80 – 120 mmHg untuk menghindari hipoksia dan trauma mukosa

5. Siapkan tempat yang steril

6. Lakukan preoksigenasi dengan O2 100% selama 30 detik sampai 3 menit

untuk mencegah terjadinya hipoksemia.

7. Secara cepat dan gentle masukkan kateter, jangan lakukan suction saat

kateter sedang dimasukkan

8. Tarik kateter 1-2 cm, dan mulai lakukan suction. Lakukan suction secara

intermitten , tarik kateter sambil menghisap dengan cara memutar. Jangan

pernah melakukan suction lebih dari 10 – 15 “.

9. Hiperoksigenasi selama 1-5 menit atau bila nadi dan SaO2 pasien normal.

10. Ulangi prosedur bila diperlukan ( maksimal 3 x suction dalam 1 waktu )

11. Tindakan suction pada mulut boleh dilakukan jika diperlukan, lakukan

juga mouth care setelah tindakan suction pada mulut.

12. Catat tindakan dalan dokumentasi keperawatan mengenai karakteristik

Sputum (jumlah, warna, konsistensi, bau, adanya darah ) dan respon



Eliastam, M., Sternbach, G., & Bresler, M. (1998). Buku saku : Penuntun

kedaruratan medis. ( edisi 5 ). Jakarta ; EGC.

Hudak & Gallo.(1994). Critical care nursing : a holistic approach.

(7th edition). Lippincott : Philadelphia..

Thelan, (1994). Critical care nursing ; Diagnosis and management.

(2nd edition). St. louis ; Mosby Company.




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